Links:

Research on social lives of male elephants:

http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20141101-male-elephants-have-a-sweet-side

Elephant Sanctuaries in the United States:

The Elephant Sanctuary in Tennessee

PAWS in Northern California

The Board of Editors of Scientific American has concluded that it is wrong to hold elephants in captivity and zoos should release their elephants to a sanctuary:

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/free-elephants-orcas-captivity/

Read Judge Segal's 56 page decision in Leider v. City of Los Angeles. Judge Segal states: “All is not well at the Los Angeles Zoo. Contrary to what the zoo’s representatives may have told the Los Angeles City Council in order to get construction of the $42 million exhibit approved and funded, the elephants are not healthy, happy or thriving.”

Read about the Detroit Zoo's decision to voluntarily release its elephants to sanctuary:

https://www.thedodo.com/why-detroit-zoo-freed-elephants-1841038281.html

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/animalia/wp/2016/07/05/zoos-will-look-and-act-radically-different-in-20-years/

Why zoos should become sanctuaries - and the difference between the two:

http://www.humansandnature.org/emphasizing-animal-well-being-and-choice 
 

Suggested Reading:

Elephants on the Edge: What Animals Teach Us about Humanity, by G. A. Bradshaw

Love, Life, and Elephants, by Daphne Sheldrick

The Elephant Whisperer, by Lawrence Anthony & Graham Spence

Last Chains on Billie, by Carol Bradley

Elephant Don, by Caitlin O'Connell

Leaving Time, by Jodi Picoult (fiction)

FOR CHILDREN OF ALL AGES: The Elephant Letters: The Story of Billy & Kani, by G. A. Bradshaw

 

References:

Bradshaw, G. A. (2009). Elephants on the edge. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Bradshaw, G. A. (2009). Inside looking out: Neuroethological compromise effects in elephants in captivity. In D. L. Forthman, L. F. Kane, D. Hancocks, & P. F. Waldau (Eds.), An Elephant in the Room: The Science and Well-Being of Elephants in Captivity, (pp. 55 – 68). North Grafton, MA: Tufts Center for Animals and Public Policy.

Buckley, C. (2009). Sanctuary: A fundamental requirement of wildlife management. In D. L. Forthman, L. F. Kane, D. Hancocks, & P. F. Waldau (Eds.), An Elephant in the Room: The Science and Well-Being of Elephants in Captivity, (pp. 191 – 197). North Grafton, MA: Tufts Center for Animals and Public Policy.

Kane, L. F. (2009). Contemporary zoo elephant management: Captive to a 19th century vision. In D. L. Forthman, L. F. Kane, D. Hancocks, & P. F. Waldau (Eds.), An Elephant in the Room: The Science and Well-Being of Elephants in Captivity (pp. 87 – 98). North Grafton, MA: Tufts Center for Animals and Public Policy.

Kaufman, G. & Martin, J. (2009). Health as an indicator of well-being in captive elephants. In D. L. Forthman, L. F. Kane, D. Hancocks, & P. F. Waldau (Eds.), An Elephant in the Room: The Science and Well-Being of Elephants in Captivity (pp. 69 – 73). North Grafton, MA: Tufts Center for Animals and Public Policy.

Poole, J. & Granli, P. (2009). Mind and movement: Meeting the interests of elephants. In D. L. Forthman, L. F. Kane, D. Hancocks, & P. F. Waldau (Eds.), An Elephant in the Room: The Science and Well-Being of Elephants in Captivity (pp. 2 – 21). North Grafton, MA: Tufts Center for Animals and Public Policy.